- Model NO.: C4H4O4
- Appearance: Liquid
- Acid Strength: Weak Acid
- Quality: Tech Grade
- Element: Monobasic Acid
- Volatility: Volatile Acid
- CAS: 110-17-8
- Formula: C4h4o4
- Trademark: Hugestone
- Origin: Jiangsu
- Classification: Inorganic Acid
- Grade Standard: Tech Grade
- Kind: Inorganic Acid
- Packaging: Fiber Drum
- Oxidation: Non Oxidizing Acid
- Stability: Stabilized Acid
- Unii: 88xhz13131
- Density: 1.635 g/cm3
- Specification: BP/USP/EP/JP/FCC
As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and is denoted by the E number E297. Fumaric acid is a food acidulent used since 1946. It is generally used in beverages and baking powders for which requirements are placed on purity. It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1.36 g of citric acid to every 0.91 grams of fumaric acid to add sourness, similar to the way malic acid is used. It is also used as a coagulant in stovetop pudding mixes.
In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, dimethyl fumarate (BG-12, Biogen) significantly reduced relapse and disability progression in a phase 3 trial. It activates the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway, the primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress.
Fumaric acid is used in the manufacture of polyester resins and polyhydric alcohols and as a mordant for dyes.
Fumaric acid converts to the irritant maleic anhydride, upon partial combustion.
It is "practically non-toxic" but high doses are probably nephrotoxic after long term use.